To investigate the possibility of MMP-9 inhibition as the mechanism underlying the antimetastatic properties of Delta-Tocotrienol on NSCLC cells.
DELTA-TOCOTRIENOLS CAN SUPPORTINHIBITION OF CELL PROLIFERATION
ATTENUATION OF TUMOR INVASION AND METASTASIS
INCREASE OF miR-451 EXPRESSIONS
REPRESSED EXPRESSION OF MMP-9 & Upa PROTEINS
Introduction to Lung Cancer and Delta-TocotrienolsLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among both women and men. Lung cancer constitutes 25% of all cancer-related deaths. Every year, more people die of lung cancer than that of breast, prostate, and colon cancers combined!
The anti-invasive effects of Delta-Tocotrienol and its underlying cellular mechanism in NSCLC had not been fully explored. In this study, the effects of Delta-Tocotrienol on cell invasion, migration, adhesion, aggregation, and proliferation capabilities were investigated using different cell-based assays.
How does Delta-Tocotrienol fight Lung Cancer?In the study, it was observed that Delta-Tocotrienols inhibited cell invasion, migration, adhesion, aggregation, and proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) based cell migration and invasion are critical mechanisms in cancer growth and development. Hence, it was also observed that Delta-Tocotrienols reduced MMP-9 activities.
The Western blot and real-time PCR analysis data also demonstrated that Delta-Tocotrienol was able to increase miR-451 expressions and was able to downregulate Notch-1 mediated NF-kB, which resulted in the repression of the expression of MMP-9 and uPA proteins. Hence, it was shown that Delta-Tocotrienols attenuated tumor invasion and metastasis. All the data generated in the study suggested that Delta-Tocotrienols may have a very potent therapeutic benefit against non-small-cells lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis.
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