Anti-cancer activity of Tocotrienol-rich fraction to show cell death in human breast cancer cells.
TOCOTRIENOLS CAN SUPPORT
ANTI-PROLIFERATIVE EFFECTS IN CANCER CELLS BY INDUCING APOPTOSIS
INCREASE OF SENSITIVITY OF CANCER CELLS TO APOPTOSIS
INVOLVING OF APOPTOTIC CELL DEATH SIGNALING PATHWAY
Introduction to Breast Cancer and TRFIn women, breast cancer is the 2nd most common cause of cancer-related deaths. It has currently become a major challenge to achieve a cure for women with highly aggressive triple-negative breast cancers. Around 15-20% of breast cancer can be classified under the triple-negative type, according to research. At present, most chemotherapeutic treatments aim to accelerate the process of apoptosis, i.e., cell death in cancer cells. TRF is one agent which has been observed to accelerate apoptosis in cancer cells.
How does Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) fight Breast Cancer?It has been observed that Tocotrienols have the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells only and not in the normal cells. The researchers have concluded that the selective cell cycle perturbation and apoptosis of Tocotrienols may have been associated with p53 and Akt/NF-kB signaling pathways. Studies have shown the Alpha-Tocopherol does not exhibit any kind of Apoptosis induction or antiproliferative activities in cancers.
On the other hand, Delta-Tocotrienol and TRF have been observed to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells by arresting them in G2 phase, and by inducing apoptosis via expression of Fas ligand, Fas receptor, caspase-8, and caspase-3, in neoplastic mammary epithelial cells. In this study, Tocotrienols were observed to induce anti-proliferation and apoptosis in association with DNA-fragmentation, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and NF-kB inhibition in the human breast cancer cells
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