Investigating the antiproliferative effects of Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on Prostate cancer.
TOCOTRIENOLS CAN SUPPORT
SUPPRESSION OF PROLIFERATION OF CANCER CELLS
INDUCTION OF APOPTOSIS IN CANCER CELLS
ANTI-INVASION AND CHEMOSENSITIZATION
Introduction to Prostate Cancer and TRFApart from skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common cancer observed in men. Prostate cancer is the 2nd leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States.
The aim of this study was to find the isomer of Vitamin E which demonstrated the most potent anticancer activities in prostate cancer cells (PCa) and to decipher the molecular pathway responsible for this activity. This study demonstrated the incredible anticancer activities of the Gamma and Delta isoforms of Tocotrienols.
How does Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction (TRF) fight Prostate Cancer?In the study, it was observed that all the isomers of Vitamin E, especially Gamma-Tocotrienol significantly suppressed the proliferation of LNCaP and PC-3 cancer cells. Delta-Tocotrienol, on the other hand, showed incredible potency in suppressing the cell proliferation and growth of LNCaP cells. It was also observed that Gamma-Tocotrienols induced apoptosis in the LNCaP cells. The order of inhibitory effect was as follows, γ-T3>δ-T3>β-T3>γ-T>δ-T≈α-T3≈α-T≈β-T (where ‘T’ stands for Tocopherols and T3 stands for Tocotrienols). Evidently, Tocotrienols, especially the Delta and the Gamma isoforms showed many potent anticancer activities as compared to Tocopherols. Gamma-Tocotrienols induced apoptosis by the activation of pro-caspases and the presence of the sub-G1 cell population. Investigation of the effects of TRF on the pro-survival genes demonstrated that the induced apoptosis or cell death was associated with the suppression of EGF-R, NF-kB, and Id family proteins (Id1 and Id3). Also, Gama-Tocotrienol treatment suppressed the mesenchymal markers and restored the E-cadherin and gamma-catenin expression, which was associated with suppression of cell invasion capability.
To conclude, the study and data showed that the antiproliferative effects of Gamma-Tocotrienols function through multiple-signaling pathways, and for the first time, the anti-invasion and chemosensitization effect of Gamma-Tocotrienols against PCa cells was observed.
Reference for the Study in detail:1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600692/
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